ESG Data Guide 2023

Technology, transparency and transition

Environmental Finance: Investment managers are facing a growing regulatory burden, with the need to comply with the SFDR, the EU Taxonomy regulation, etc. How can they best address the data challenges involved? 

Patricia TorresPatricia Torres: Investment managers need to have strong data, analytics and integration, and they need to be very clear about their sustainability goals. Are they looking to address ESG risk, or pursue impact? Can they demonstrate alignment with these goals? To do that they need to do their homework, understand the data they are ingesting, and ensure it is fit for purpose.  

Investment managers also need to be on top of evolving global regulatory requirements and recognise that each one will require specific datasets and information so they can comply and market their funds appropriately. It’s something we’re very focused on at Bloomberg, structuring datasets to allow compliance with ESG regulations as they evolve, like the EU Taxonomy requirements, for example. 

We also ensure we can provide estimates to fill gaps when there is not sufficient company reported data, whether it’s carbon emissions data or EU Taxonomy eligibility data. For example, of the 4,360 companies we’ve reviewed, only 315 have reported their EU Taxonomy eligibility data as of June 2022. It is important for investors that their data vendor can address gaps such as these. 

Brad Foster: In terms of regulatory scrutiny, this is nothing new for us. We have more than 60 regulatory solutions for both buy- and sell-side clients. The same issues always apply: customers want to understand the source of the data, they want full transparency, consistency and alignment. They will need to be able to link ESG data to other datasets, whether it is for regulatory or risk use-cases. This a well-trodden road for us. 

EF: For investors, the ultimate value of ESG data is in its use informing investment decisions. How are clients integrating ESG data in their investment processes?

PT: What we’re hearing from our clients is that effective ESG data integration must be done at every level of an organisation, so it requires a new target operating model spanning areas like company vision, structure, processes and data and technology. To help address that, we provide solutions across five pillars: research and ideas generation, which include our indices and BI and BNEF research arms; ESG insights and integration, including our proprietary and third-party data and scores; portfolio and risk management; compliance and risk oversight; and technology and data management solutions.  

BF: Another big question our clients are asking themselves is, how is the transition to net zero going to impact company fundamentals and their underlying business models? For example, how will ESG factors affect the ability of a company to generate revenue and, therefore, how will this impact credit spreads and buy-side liquidity and how companies fund themselves if funds are precluded from investing in companies that don’t meet certain ESG criteria?

EF: There is a lot of confusion as to exactly what ESG scores measure. How should users understand them?

PT: The market is opaque. People often don’t know which inputs are going into an ESG scoring model, and even what the purpose is. Are they intended to measure ESG risk and opportunity, or do they seek to measure impact? There are questions as to whether aggregated ESG scores are still useful, given that they represent a mixed bag of different metrics, and it is rarely clear which inputs, with which weights, were used to compute each element. 

The most important thing the market needs is full transparency around where the data comes from, and on how scores are aggregated and weighted. Once users understand what a score measures, they can determine how to use it to support their strategy. This is why Bloomberg scores are data-driven and fully transparent, enabling users to examine the methodology and underlying company-reported data. If you bring transparency, then you bring trust.  

EF: Banks are under growing scrutiny from regulators and their own investors regarding climate risk. What options do they have regarding climate risk data? 

Brad FosterPT: Banks will be absolutely critical to the transition, and they recognise that climate risk is financial risk. The data needs to decipher this are enormous. Banks need to be able to measure their portfolio’s emissions and the physical and transition risks down to the asset level. They need to understand companies’ transition plans, their energy intensity, their water intensity, the location of specific assets, and their supply chain exposures. They then need to model at least three climate scenarios out to 2100 and understand how their investments will perform under those scenarios. 

Regulators are asking banks to run this sort of climate stress-testing, and we’re working with many banks on such tests and helping with some of the required disclosures, such as for the European Banking Association Pillar 3 ESG reporting.

These exercises are only as good as the data feeding the models. This is an area that Michael Bloomberg is very interested in: he recently announced with French President Emmanuel Macron, the UN and other partners an open-data platform to ensure the market has access to the high-quality consistent data that it needs to properly price climate risk. This will be very important. We don’t have any time to lose.   

For more information, see


Guide entries by Bloomberg

Verification (Third Party)

Carbon Emissions Scope 3 footprint

Modern Slavery footprint

Species extinction-risk footprint


iSA, iS, impak Score™, SFDR+i

Rainforest Alliance & Conservation International

Mettle Capital ESG Risk platform

MIS Second Party Opinion


Seafood Database

Second Party Opinion

ESG Rating, Reporting and Advisory

Climate and environment data hub

Sustainability Copilot


Sanctify ESG

Asset-level Indicators

Asset-based Analytics

Asset-based Company Indicators – Essential and Advanced

Bloomberg Sustainable Finance Solutions

India ESG datasets [BRSR taxonomy available]

9fin ESG


CARBON IMPACT ANALYTICS (CIA) For climate transition risk

CDP 2022 GHG Raw Emissions Dataset

CDP 2022 Full GHG Modelled Emissions Dataset

CDP 2022 Risks and Opportunities Dataset

CDP 2022 Scores

CDP 2022 TCFD-Aligned Climate Change Dataset

CDP 2022 Temperature Ratings


Global Landscape of Climate Finance

ESG Portfolio Check

Sustainable Finance Ai Suite (ESG, EU Taxonomy, Supply Chain Risk)

ESG Lead


EF Data

Equileap Gender Equality Data

Ethical Screening Portal


Coller FAIRR Protein Producer Index

ESG research, data and reporting solutions

Forests & Finance

Forest 500


Greenomy EU Taxonomy/SFDR/EET Solution

Corporate Ratings

ETF Fund Ratings

Issuer ESG and SDG Benchmarking

Municipal Bond Data and Ratings

US Retirement Plans, including 401(k) and 403(b)

Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool

CBF – Corporate Biodiversity Footprint

SB2A – Science-Based 2°C Alignment

Global Impact Database



ESG Impact Rating

Green Bond Transparency Platform (GBTP)


Corporate Governance Information Search

JPX ESG Indices

LGX DataHub

Climate Data by Moody’s

ESG Data by Moody’s

Nasdaq Sustainable Bond Network

Nasdaq ESG Data Hub

Nasdaq ESG Data Portal

Nasdaq ESG Footprint

Informe Anual OFISO

ESG Solutions

Resolution Database

Second Party Opinions

SDI Asset Owner Platform

ESG Disclosures and Sustainability Report Assurance

Second-Party Opinions on Sustainable Bonds and Loans

Supply Chain ESG Risk Platform

UN SDG Impact Assurance




Sustainable Fitch ESG Ratings

Geospatial ESG Solutions

Sovereign ESG Ratings


White Stag Investing Investment Research in Water, Oceans and Biodiversity


Forest Atlases

Global Forest Watch

Global Forest Watch Pro



Resource Watch

WRI Aqueduct

Carbon Footprinting and Science-based Targets Support

Second Party Opinion - Thematic Bonds and Loans & Impact Assessment

TCFD Advisory and Support

Carbon & Climate Data

Carbon Footprint Report

Climate Impact Report

Net Zero Solutions

Climate Scenario Analysis and Implied Temperature Score

Climate Physical Risk

Transition Risk

Climate Advisory Services

Potential Avoided Emissions Data

Energy & Extractives Screening

Norm-Based Research

Country Screening

Sector-Based Screening

Country Controversy Assessment

Director Data

Executive Compensation Analytics

Voting Analytics

Governance QualityScore

E&S Disclosure QualityScore

ESG Muni QualityScore

Carbon Risk Rating

ESG Corporate Rating

ESG Country Rating

SDG Solutions Assessment

SDG Impact Rating

ESG Fund Rating

Water Risk Rating

Biodiversity Impact Assessment Tool

ESG Index Solutions

EU Taxonomy Alignment Solution

SFDR Principle Adverse Impacts Solution

Regulatory Sustainable Investment Solution

ESG Portfolio Analysis

ESG Raw Data

Global Sanctions Screening

Responsible Investment Policy Development

EVA (Economic Value Added)

Climate Voting Policy

Custom Climate Voting Factors

Bespoke Research & Advisory Solutions

ESG Scorecard

Controversial Weapons Research

CIARA – Carbon Impact Analytics for Real Assets

CDP 2022 Forest Corporate Response Dataset

CDP 2022 Water Security Corporate Response Dataset

Net Zero Finance Tracker

Sustainable Economy Intelligence

ESG Ratings & Analysis

SDG Analysis

Net Zero Analysis

Fund Due Diligence and SDR Labelling Reports

Ethical Research

Sustainable Funds Portal


Coller FAIRR Climate Risk Tool

ESG Solutions

Fund EET Data

Fathom’s Product Stack


Trase Finance

Dependency scores

Climate Positive Impact

Positive Impact Biodiversity

Carbon Footprint

Empirical ESG and Impact Data

Real Asset Analysis

ESG Newsroom

Norm-Based Engagement

Thematic Engagement

ESG Custom Rating

Cyber Risk Score

European ESG Template Solution

Environmental & Social Raw Data

Sustainability Insights Suite

ESG Reporting Platform for VC

ESG Solutions by MSCI

Climate and Net-Zero Solutions by MSCI

Biodiversity Solutions by MSCI

Sustainability Solutions for Corporates and Advisors


Rating Watch




ESG GPS ratings

Data for Nature Insights

Fund EcoMarket

State Street Risk Analytics Platform

TSC Water Security Index

SDG Impact for Public Companies

Universal Impact

Climate Ready Farms

Energy Access Explorer


Ocean Watch

Water, Peace and Security - Global Early Warning Tool 

Global Water Watch

WRI Open Data Portal

Systems Change Lab

Open Timber Portal 

ESG Clarified

WWF Risk Filter Suite

ICE Climate Physical Risk Data

ICE Climate Transition Analytics Tool

ICE ESG Company Data

European ESG Template (EET) solution

ICE Emissions & Targets Data

ICE ESG Geo-Analyzer Tool

ICE Impact Bond Classification Service

SFDR Principal Adverse Impact (PAI) Data

Task-force for Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD) Data

ICE UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Data – Municipal Bonds

News Aggregator/Controversies Monitoring Tool

ESG Research and Data Services


CDP 2022 Climate Change Corporate Response Dataset

Green Bond Database

Social and Sustainability Bond Database

DEEP Value©

Benchmark ESG Disclosure Dataset


Modern Slavery Scorecard

LSEG Sustainable Finance and Investment Solutions

imug rating ESG-Investments

Briink AI ESG Copilot

ESG Relevance Scores

Climate Wisdom by

ESG, Climate & Nature

Global Integrated Energy Model

Clean Energy Procurement Service

Corporate Emissions Solution

Intentionality and Stewardship Data (Wealth)

Climate Data for Companies and Funds

Second Party Opinions

Product Involvement and Impact Metrics for Companies and Funds

Low Carbon Transition Ratings

EU Action Plan Solutions

ESG Risk Ratings

Physical Climate Risk Metrics

FactSet's ESG Investing Solutions

Physical Risk Analytics

Clarity AI Sustainability Tech Kit

AssetWisdom™ by

BIODIVERSITY IMPACT ANALYTICS POWERED BY THE GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY SCORE™ (BIA-GBS) for the biodiversity impact and dependencies of companies

NEC metric “Net Environmental Contribution”